Derivation of Townland Names:  The occurrence of Gaelic, Norman and English place name elements in Trim Civil Parish


This study focuses on the derivation of the townland names of the civil parish of Trim. The civil parish of Trim is located partly in the barony of Lower Moyfenrath and partly in the barony of Navan Upper in the south west of County Meath.

The civil parish unit is based on the medieval parochial system and is the area, which was served by a priest in medieval times. The civil parish of Trim has changed over the centuries. Trimlestown was a separate parish and contained the townlands of Trimblestown, Dunlever, Gormanstown, Oakstown, Phillinstown, Addenstown and Kilnacross. These townlands are now part of the civil parish of Trim. The townlands of Ifferknock and St. Johns were part of the parish of Trim but are now part of the civil parish of Laracor.

The townland is the smallest administrative unit used in Ireland. The modern townlands were first mapped by the Ordnance Survey 1824-46. These were based on the existing land divisions, some of which pre-dated the Norman invasion. During the first mapping of the country John O’Donovan examined the existing townland names in order to create a standardised spelling.

The names of the townlands are standardised as in the Name Books, which were compiled by O’Donovan and other surveyors.  By searching out the root elements of the place names it can be ascertained when and how the name came into existence. Townland names in Trim are derived from Gaelic, Old English, New English and modern origins. Each townland is examined as to its orthography in various historical records and the meaning of its name from O’Donovan and other sources.

List of abbreviations:

Books of Survey and Distribution – National Archives Ireland.

Butler – Richard Butler, Some notices of the castle and of the ecclesiastical buildings of Trim (Trim, 1854).

Larkin’s Map – William Larkin, Map of County Meath (1812).

Monastic Possessions – Newport B. White, (ed.) Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions 1540-41 (Dublin, 1943)

Civil Survey – Robert C. Simington, The Civil Survey A.D. 1644-1656 County of  Meath (Dublin,1940).

Petty’s Map – Map of the Barony of Navan in the county of Meath (1655) or Map of the Barony of Moyfenragh in the county of Meath by William Morgan (1655). Published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton (1908).

Statistical Survey – Map of County Meath, engraved by J. Taylor (Donnybrook, 1802) in Robert Thompson Statistical Survey of County Meath (Dublin, 1802).


1540-41           Adamstown                           Monastic Possessions, p. 292.

1654-6             Addingstowne                       Civil Survey, p. 248.

1655                Adingstowne                          Petty’s Map – Navan.

1660c.             Addingstowne                         Books of Survey and Distribution

1693                Adamstown                            Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192.

1854                Addanstown                           Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Addenstown from Baile Adáin, Adan’s town but it could be Aodhán’s town. Aodhán is derived from the personal name Aodh, meaning fire and usually anglicised as Hugh. However it is possible the name is diminutive of Adam and the townland could be Adhamhnán’s or little Adam’s town, corresponding with the earliest occurrence of the name. Addanstown is in the northern end of the parish of Trim. There is an Adamstown in the neighbouring parish of Laracor just to the south of Trim.[i]


1854                Aghathomas                            Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Aghathomas from Achadh Thomais, Thomas’s field. Achadh is the most widespread and least specific term for a field and is very common as an initial element of townland names throughout the country. A field could simply be a clearing in the wood. Eight townlands in Meath commence with Agh meaning field. The element Achadh is primarily found to the north and west of Meath in counties Longford, Leitrim, Cavan, Fermanagh Tyrone and Monaghan.[ii]

The male name, Thomas, is of Aramaic origin, and occurs in the bible as one of the apostle’s names ‘doubting Thomas’. Thomas was a popular name among the Normans in Ireland due to devotion to St. Thomas à Becket. From the thirteenth century onwards Thomas became one of the commonest names in use in England and Ireland.[iii]


1559                Ballymulmurry                        Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Ballimullmore                        Civil Survey, p. 171

1667 Ballymulmory alias

Ballymulmore                        Indenture, Butler, p. 142.      

1660c.             Ballimullmore                          Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Ballymulmore                          Larkin’s Map

1854                Ballymulmore                          Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Ballymulmore from Baile Mhaolmórdha, Mulmore’s town. Máel mórda is derived from mórda, meaning great or haughty. This was a favourite name among the early Leinstermen and borne by several of their kings. In the latter middle ages it was especially favoured by the O’Dempseys, O’Reillys and the Mac Sweeneys. It has generally been anglicised Myles among the O’Reillys. The O’Reilly’s of Cavan were given the name Muintir Maolmordha or the people of Maolmordha.[iv]

The element baile occurs in one tenth of all townland names. In Meath baile or a derivation occurs as the first syllable in 111 out of 1600 townland names or approximately 7%. The earliest occurrence of baile in monastic charters (e.g. Kells) was followed by an increase in its distribution following the Anglo-Norman use of the Latin villa and the English tūn qualified by the name of a feudal tenant.[v]

Ballynafeeragh (1st and 2nd Divisions)

1559                Leyeton                                   Patent,  Butler, p. 122.

1610                Leyton                                     Rent, Butler, p. 128.

1624 Leyton alias

Balleneferagh                          Grant, Butler, p. 128

1667 Leytown alias

Ballyneferagh                          Indenture, Butler, p. 141.

1812                Balinaveeragh                         Larkin’s Map

1854                Ballynafeeragh                        Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Ballynafeeragh from Baile na bhFéartach, meaning the town of the grassy fields.[vi]  This would agree with its early appearance in documents as lea fields, which are grassland.


1559                Batrestown                              Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Baterstowne                            Civil Survey, p.170.  

1667 Baterstown alias

Batterstown                             Indenture, Butler, p. 142.

1660c.              Batterstowne                           Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Batterstown                            Larkin’s Map

1854                 Batterstown                            Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Batterstown from Baile an Bóthair, meaning the town of the road. The word bóthar means a road or avenue originally for cattle and is derived from , meaning cow. There are three other Batterstowns in County Meath.[vii]


1399                Bellewston                              License, Butler, p. 92.

1470                Bellewstown                           Statute, Butler, p. 90.

1559                Bedlowyston                           Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1610                Bedlowston                             Rent, Butler, p. 127.

1624                Bedlowestown                        Grant, Butler, p. 130.

1654-6             Bellewstowne                         Civil Survey, p. 172.

1655                Bedlowestowne                      Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.

1660c.             Bedlowestown                         Books of Survey and Distribution

1667                Bedlestown                             Indenture, Butler, p. 141.

1693                Bellewstown                           Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192

1802                Bellewstown                           Statistical Survey

1812                Bedlewstown                          Larkin’s Map

1854                Bellewstown                           Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Bellewstown from Baile Bheileóg meaning the town of the Bellew family. Bellew is a Norman toponymic (de Belleau). The name may be derived from bel eau,  the fair water. The family settled in Louth and Meath shortly after the Anglo-Norman invasion. There are two other Bellewstown in County Meath.[viii]

Black Friary (1st and 2nd Division, north part, south part)

1654-6             Lands of ye Blackfryars         Civil Survey, p. 249.  

1812                Black Fryars                            Larkin’s Map

1854                Blackfriary                              Griffith’s Valuation   

The Black Friary or Dominican Friary at Trim was founded in 1263 by Geoffrey de Geneville.  Chapters of the Dominican Order were held in the monastery in 1285, 1300 and 1315 and the Irish parliament met at the Black Friary in 1446. At the dissolution of the monasteries in 1540 the friars were dispossessed. The property of the Friary included the site of the church and cloister, orchard, garden and cemetery, a close of pasture adjacent to the walls of the house contained 3 acres. This is the location of Black Friary (2nd division). The property of the monastery included thirty acres held by John Fyan and thirty acres held by David Lloyd in the common field of Trym and six  acres in Tullaghard held by Llyod. This property formed the foundation for the first division section of the townland. The friary site is located in the second division with the first division having a rectilinear enclosure site.[ix]


1559                Ballybrennocke                       Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Brancokstowne                       Civil Survey, p. 170.

1660c.             Brannockstowne                     Books of Survey and Distribution

1667 Ballybrenock alias

Brenockstown alias                 Indenture, Butler, p. 142.


1802                Branningstown                        Statistical Survey

1812                Brannackstown                       Larkin’s Map

1854                Brannockstown                       Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Brannockstown from Baile Bhranóig, Brannock’s town. However another derivation seems more logical: Baile na mBreathnach – the townland of the Walshes. MacLysaght suggests that Brannock is a toponymic from Brecknock but can appear as a synonym of Walsh Breathnach. The Walshes, meaning from Wales, settled in Ireland at the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion.  Wolfe disagrees with this derivation of the surname and says that Breathnach is a separate name.[x]

The Broad

1559                            Broadmede                 Patent, Butler, p. 122.

1610                            Bridemade                  Rent, Butler, p. 128

1667                            Broadmeade                Indenture, Butler, p. 141.

1854                            Broad                          Griffith’s Valuation

The Broad was a meadow.


1854                Capranny                                 Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Capranny from Ceap (ach) Raithnighe, meaning the plot of the ferns. An aerial photograph shows the cropmark of circular enclosure which could be the plot. P.W. Joyce describes ceapach as ‘ a plot of land laid down for tillage.’ Ceapach features in townland names predominantly as a prefix and here it is qualified by ‘of the ferns.’ Ceapach is generally found to the south of Meath in Munster.[xi]


1533                Cabraght                                 Grant, Butler, p. 121.

1559                Carbragh                                 Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1610                Carbragh                                 Rent, Butler, p. 128.

1624                Carbragh                                 Grant, Butler, p. 130.

1655                Carbarberstowne                     Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.

1654-6             Carberstowne                        Civil Survey, 168.

1660c.             Carbersberstowne                   Books of Survey and Distribution

1667                 Carbragh alias

Carrberstown                          Indenture, Butler, p. 141.

1693                Carbristown                            Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192. 

1812                Carberstown                            Larkin’s Map

1854                Carberrystown                         Griffith’s Valuation   

O’Donovan derives Carberystown from Baile Chairbre, Carbery’s town. Cairbre was the one of the most popular personal name in early Irish society. Cairbre, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, gave his name to the barony of Carbury Co. Kildare. Locally Cairbre, son of Colman, Abbot of Trim died in 844. As a family name the principal sept of Ó Cairbre were chieftains of the barony of Clonlonan, co. Westmeath. Another family derived their names from Carbury, Co. Kildare. A member of this family is mentioned in a tenancy on the Meath-Kildare border in 1304. The townland has a large enclosure and at the highest point a low rectangular platform, possibly the homestead of the Carbery family.[xii]

Charter School Land

1783                Charter School                        Taylor and Skinners’s Map[xiii]

1802                Charter School                        Statistical Survey

1812                Charter School                        Larkin’s Map

1854                Charter-school land                 Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan said that this townland was the property of the Incorporated Society and contained the Charter School House. In 1733-4 the Incorporated Society for promoting English Protestant Working Schools in Ireland was granted its charter. The schools promoted the reading of scripture as well as educating poor children in industry, good husbandry and loyalty to the crown. The schools promoted the Protestant religion to its Catholic students in an attempt to convert them. Trim Charter School opened in 1748, became a day school in 1821 and closed in 1881. There are townlands named ‘Charter school lands’ in Kilkenny and Tipperary.[xiv]


1654-6             Clondavan                               Civil Survey, p. 249.

1655                Dundanon                               Petty’s Map, Navan.

1660c.             Dundavan                               Books of Survey and Distribution.

1812                Clondavan                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Clondavan                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Clondavan from Cluain Dubhain meaning Duane’s lawn or meadow. Cluain is derived from meadow, a fertile piece of ground, surrounded or nearly surrounded by bog or marsh on one side and water on the other. Clondavan is situated in a marshy area and two streams originate in the townland. There are forty-one townlands in County Meath with names which commence with ‘Clon.’ Duane or Ó Dubháin means descendant of the black person. This Meath family were lords of Cnodhbha (Knowth) but were dispossessed and dispersed throughout Leinster.[xv]


1559                Clony                                      Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Cloney                                     Civil Survey, p. 171b.

1660c.             Cloney                                     Books of Survey and Distributio

1667 Ballyowen alias

Cloney                                     Indenture, Butler, p. 141.

1812                Cloney                                     Larkin’s Map

1854                Clonee                                     Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Clonee from Cluain Í, the low lawn or meadow. Cluain place-names are most common in wet and spongy regions where meadowland is a valued resource. Ballyowen means the town of the river.[xvi]


1854                Cloneens                                 Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Cloneens from Cluaininidhe, little lawns or meadows. The placename, Clooneen,  is common in the west of Ireland[xvii]

Commons North and South (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th divisions)

1540-41           Common field of Trym           Monastic possession, p. 308.

1654-6             Comons of Trim                      Civil Survey, p. 168.

1655                Commons                                Petty’s Map, Navan.

1854                Commons                                Griffith’s Valuation

The Commons of Trim was held by the corporation of Trim but was not held as commonage after 1705. This land was for the use of the burgesses of the town. In 1753 the Commons amounted to 479 acres. The 1753 map provides the name Krickeens for the 5th division of this townland.[xviii]

Other towns in the county also had commons. In Meath there are townlands named ‘Commons’ in the parishes of Duleek, Navan, Ratoath, Skreen, Slane and Slane in addition to those at Trim.[xix]


Corporationland north (1st, 2nd , 3rd 4th division)

1854                Corporationland                                  Griffith’s Valuation

The corporation of Trim was first given a charter by Walter de Lacy at the end of the twelfth century.[xx] This was the land vested in the corporation.

Crowpark (1st division, 2nd division)

1812                Crowpark                                Larkin’s Map

1854                Crowpark                                Griffith’s Valuation

O Donovan said this name was derived from a rookery.[xxi]


1559                Gallestown                              Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Dalistown                                Civil Survey, p. 171.  

1660c.             Dallistowne                             Books of Survey and Distribution

1667 Gallestown alias

Dalestown alias                       Indenture, Butler, p. 142.


1812                Dalystown                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Dalystown                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Dalystown from Baile Uí Dhálaigh meaningO’Daly’s town. The Daly’s were originally from Westmeath and were chieftains of Corca Adhaimh in Westmeath. The Daly surname is a very distinguished name in Gaelic literature. The first recorded O’Daly was Curonnacht Ó Dailigh who presided over a bardic school in Meath in the early twelfth century. The name is one of the thirty most common names in Ireland. A ring-ditch, ringfort and enclosure site in the townland may have been the home of the O’Dalys.[xxii]

Drinadaly- Derrindaly

1471                Droynydaly                             Statute, Butler, p. 92.

1654-6             Drinidaly                                 Civil Survey, p. 172.

1655                Drinedaly                                Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh

1660c.             Drinidaly                                 Books of Survey and Distribution

1802                Drinidaly                                 Statistical Survey

1812                Drinidaly?                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Derrindaly                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Drinadaly from Doirín Uí Dhálaigh meaning  O’Daly’s little oak wood.[xxiii] The placename element doire which  is anglicised ‘derry’ is  found mainly to north and west of Meath in Connacht and Ulster.

Dogstown (1st, 2nd, 3rd division)

1559                Doggestown                            Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Doggstowne                            Civil Survey

1660c.             Doggstowne                            Books of Survey and Distribution.

1667                Doggestown alias

Doggstown                              Indenture, Butler, p. 142.

1812                Dogstown                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Dogstown                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Dogstown from Baile na Madadh meaning  the  town of the dogs[xxiv]


1559                Dowlestown                            Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Dolistowne                              Civil Survey, p. 170.

1660c.             Doelistowne                            Books of Survey and Distribution

1667                Dowliestown alias

Doelistown                              Indenture, Butler, p. 142.

1812                Doolistown                             Larkin’s Map

1854                Doolystown                            Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Doolistown from Baile Uí Dhubhlaigh meaning O’Dooley’s town. The Dooleys or  Ó Dubhlaoich  were lords of Fertullagh, which is nearby in Westmeath. The family were driven out of their homelands by the O’Melaghlins and Tyrrells and migrated to the Ely O’Carroll country. Wolfe  says that there was another branch who were from Clann Mhaonaigh and a branch of the O’Melaghlins of Meath who were dispossessed in the eleventh century. Ó Dubhlaoich is derived from ‘dubh laoch’ meaning black hero.[xxv]

Dunlever Glebe

1553 Dunlevyrs alias

Dunlwyrs alias                        Grant, Butler, p. 120.


1559                Dolyvers                                  Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Dunlevers                                Civil Survey, p. 247.


1655                Dunlevere                                Petty’s Map, Navan.

1655                Comon of Dunlevere              Petty’s Map, Navan.

1660                Dunleivers                               Grant, Butler, p. 178.

1660c.             Dunleivers                               Books of Survey and Distribution

1667 Dunlever alias

Dunlivers                                 Indenture, Butler, p. 141.

1812                Dunkeever?                             Larkin’s Map

1854                Dunlever Glebe                       Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Dunlever from Dún Libhir meaning Leever’s fort. Dún means fort or fortress, the dwelling of kings and chieftains. It is one of the most evenly distributed of Irish place name elements. Dun or its derivatives appear as the first component in twelve townland names of County Meath. Joyce stated that a great number of duns have taken their names from either the original founders or subsequent possessors. Liber is  a personal name and probably a borrowing from the Latin liber meaning free. The name was largely clerical and according to an early source there were eighteen saints of the name. Dunlever became glebe lands after it was granted to Dr. John Crookshanke, Vicar of Trim in 1660 with succession to the vicars of Trim forever. The Archaeological Survey recorded the remains of a ring-ditch and oval area, which may have been Dunlever. A large ring fort in the northern part of the townland is visible on the 1836 O.S. map. [xxvi]


1854                Fearmore                                 Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Fearmore from Fiair Mór (Féar Mór), meaning great ley fields.[xxvii]


1854                Fostersholding                                    Griffith’s Valuation


1624                Fosterstown                            Grant, Butler, p. 130.

1654-6             Fosterstowne                           Civil Survey, p. 168.

1655                Fosterstowne                           Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.

1660c.             Fosterstowne                           Books of Survey and Distribution

1667               Forrestown alias

Fosterstown                             Indenture, Butler, p. 141.

1693                Fosterstowne                           Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192.

1802                Fosterstown                            Statistical Survey

1812                Fosterstown                            Larkin’s Map

1854                Fosterstown                            Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan stated that Foster was a family name. Foster may be a contraction of Forester but may also be derived from someone who fosters children. In Athboy parish to the north of Trim there is a townland named ‘Fosterfields.’ A John le Forester, provost of Athboy, is mentioned in a deed of 1329. Fosterstown is south of the town of Trim and Fostersholding is north of the town.[xxviii]

Friarspark North and South 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th 6th division)

Friaryland (3rd Division)

1654-6             Fryarsparke                             Civil Survey, p. 170.

1660c.             Fryarsparke                             Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Friarspark                                Larkin’s Map

1854                Friarspark                                Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan said this was the park of the friars, the lands belonging to the friars.[xxix] This property belonged to one of the monasteries of Trim. There were three orders of friars in Trim : Dominican, Franciscan and Augustinian. Having examined the extents of the confiscations of the monasteries it is not possible to ascertain to which monastery the lands belonged.


1854                Glebe                                       Griffith’s Valuation

A glebe is a portion of land assigned to a clergyman as part of his benefice. This glebe was surrounded by the townland of Ballymulmore and was the site of  Clonee church, the foundations of which survive. The place name element Cluain is associated with monastic settlements such as Clonard and Clonmacnoise. In Meath there are townlands named ‘Glebe’ in the parishes of Killallon, Kilbride, Loughcrew, Killeagh, Julianstown, Moynalty, Kilbeg, Rathmolyon, Ardbraccan, Siddan, Killaconnigan, Clongill, Rathregan, Killeen and Dowth. There are townlands named ‘Glebe’ in almost every county in Ireland.[xxx]

Glebe of Trim

O’Donovan stated that the parish church of Trim, St. Patrick’s, was in this glebe.[xxxi]


1654-6             Gormanstowne                        Civil Survey, p. 247.

1655                Gormonstowne                       Petty’s Map, Navan.

1660c.             Gormonstowne                       Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Gormanstown                         Larkin’s Map

1854                Gormanstown                         Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Gormanstown from Baile Uí Ghormáin meaning O’Gorman’s town. The Gormans were the chieftains of the barony of Slievemargy in Co. Laois but were driven out by the Norman invasion. Gormanston, Stamullen parish, the seat of the Lords Gormanston, is mentioned as Villa Macgorman in a cartulary of Llanthony c.1200. There are two other townlands named Gormanstown in County Meath.[xxxii]


1854                Greatfurze                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan provided the Irish, Aiteann mor, for great furze.[xxxiii]

Kennastown – Kennystown

1559                Ballyconnan                            Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Canistowne                             Civil Survey, p. 169.

1660c.             Canistowne                             Books of Survey and Distribution

1667 Ballyconna alias

Conanstown alias

Ballycourt alias                       Indenture, Butler, p. 142.

Senistown alias


1854                Kennastown                            Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Kennastown from Baile Cheannaigh, meaning Kenny’s town. The name, Kenny, may be a personal name or derived from the surname, Kenny, now found mainly in the west of Ireland. The surname, Mac Kenna, is said to have originated in Meath. The place name could originate from something relating to the head, ceann, as in Ceannanus Mór. The Archaeological Inventory recorded the site of earthworks in this townland.[xxxiv]

A townland near Navan in the civil parish of Ardsallagh is also named Kennastown but today this is generally recognised as Cannistown. O’Donovan stated that the Kennastown in Ardsallagh was derived from the Kenna family, Baile Ceana.


1559                Kilmorry                                  Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Kilmurry                                  Civil Survey, p. 172.

1655                Killmury                                  Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.

1660c.             Killmurray                               Books of Survey and Distribution

1802                Killmurry                                 Statistical Survey

1812                Killmurray                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Kilmurry                                  Griffith’s Valuation

Kilmurray is derived from Cill Mhuire, meaning Mary’s church. Cill is the most productive element in ecclesiastical place-names before the twelfth century. Cill, a borrowing from the Latin cella, is usually anglicised as kil. Up to one in twenty townland names include the element Kil. There are 59 townlands in Meath which commence with kil or kill. Devotion to Mary increased following the Anglo-Norman invasion. Kilmurry is the name of nearly fifty townlands with devotion particularly strong in Leinster. St. Mary’s Augustinian Abbey, Trim was the site of a medieval pilgrimage to the statue of Our Lady of Trim. There are no archaeological remains of a church in this townland. The usual Irish name is Cill Mhuire, Mary’s church; but Joyce suggested that some may have been so named after an ecclesiastical  figure, Muireadhach.[xxxv]


1533                Killnycrosse                            Grant, Butler, p. 121.

1654-5             Kilnecrosse                              Civil Survey, p. 172.

1660c.             Killnecrosse                             Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Kilnacross                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Kilnagross                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Kilnagros from Cill na gCros, meaning the church of the crosses.[xxxvi] The Archaeological Survey recorded no remains of a church site in this townland.


1854                Lackanash                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Lackenash from Leacain Ais, with a possible meaning of hill-side of the milk. However leac could be flag (stone), the name could the flag of the milk. It is a small townland near to the town of Trim and there appear to be no early recording of the name. The modern pronunciation adds little to the derivation of its meaning. In 1540-41 there was an area called Asshepark in this vicinity. John Ashe received a pension from the monastery which owned Asshepark. However such a hybrid name does not appear likely.[xxxvii]

Manor South – Manorland (1st , 2nd division)

1854                Manorland                               Griffith’s Valuation

The manor lands of Trim were the estate of the lord of Trim which originated in medieval times. Manorland 1st division contains the remains of the lord’s home –Trim castle. Manorlands 2nd division  has a cropmark of small enclosure, probably a small field. The Manorlands were more extensive than the surviving townlands boundaries portray.[xxxviii]


1386                the Maudelyns                                    Extent[xxxix]

1540-41           Mawdeleyns                            Monastic possessions, p. 303.

1540-41           Mawdelynsfeld                       Monastic possessions, p. 307.

1559                Maudelen’s field                     Patent, Butler, p. 122.

1610                Maudelin’s field                      Rent, Butler, p. 127.

1654-6             Maudlins                                 Civil Survey, p. 169.

1655                Maudlins                                 Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.

1660c.             Maudlins                                 Books of Survey and Distribution

1667                Maudelin’s field                      Indenture, Butler, p. 140.

1854                Maudlin                                   Griffith’s Valuation

The term, Maudlin, is derived from Mary Magdalene. The Trim hospital of the Blessed Mary Magdalene was a leper hospital first mentioned in 1335. O’Donovan stated that the townland is said to have derived its name from Lady Maudlin, daughter of Sir —- but this is not correct. The Maudlin church and graveyard is now located in Friaryland 3rd division. There is also a townland named ‘Maudlin’ in Kells parish and a Maudlin bridge in Duleek.[xl]


1540-41           Monketon                                Monastic Possessions, p. 269.

1654-6             Moncketowne                         Civil Survey, p. 172.

1655                Monkstowne                           Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.

1660c.             Monckstowne                         Books of Survey and Distribution

1854                Monktown                              Griffith’s Valuation

This property was in the possession of the Cistercian abbey of Bective abbey.[xli]


1812                Meenisbouy                             Larkin’s Map

1854                Moynasboy                             Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derived Moynasboy from Magh nEasa Bhuidhe, the plain of the yellow waterfall or Mag-nEach buidhe, the yellow plain of the horses. O’Donovan said the name was pronounced ‘Maighneas Buidhe.’ Magh is the most common Irish word for a plain or level tract. The place name element Maigh is distributed throughout the 32 counties and is usually anglicised moy. Buidhe, meaning yellow, is anglicised as boy. A nearby townland, Newtownmoynagh, had an earlier alternative name as Horsenewtown. As there is no significant waterfall in the townland the name is more likely to be derived from the yellow plain of the horses.[xlii]


1544                Newhaggard                           Grant, Butler, p. 215.

1654-6             Newhaggard                           Civil Survey, p. 169.

1655                New Hagert                            Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.

1660c.             Newhaggard                           Books of Survey and Distribution

1802                Newhaggart                            Statistical Survey

1812                Newhaggard                           Larkin’s Map

1854                Newhaggard                           Griffith’s Valuation

A haggard is a stackyard used for storing un-threshed corn. In this townland in the  nineteenth century there was an extensive corn and flour mill on the river. This Newhaggard probably replaced the earlier haggard which was located nearer the town of Trim, which was indicated by one of the street names. The earliest reference to Haggard street in Trim is in 1571 when it is mentioned in a Fiant. The element ‘new’ is linked to the Anglo-Norman settlement and so its use as a place name element is most common in Leinster. There is also a townland named ‘Newhaggard’ in Kilsharvan parish in east Meath.[xliii]


1559                Horsenewtown                        Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Newtowne Moyneagh                        Civil Survey, p. 170.

1660c.             Newtowne Moyneth               Books of Survey and Distribution

1667 Horestown Newtown alias

Hanesnewtown alias               Indenture, Butler, p. 142.

Newtown Moynaghe

1812                Newtownmeenagh                  Larkin’s Map

1854                Newtownmoynagh                 Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Newtownmoynagh from Baile Nua na Muimhneach, meaning the Newtown of the Munstermen. Newtown was one of the simplest and most common place name elements introduced by the Anglo-Normans. There are 19 townlands with the term ‘Newtown’ as their first component in county Meath. O’Donovan provided Muimhneach for a Munsterman. However an alternative  derivation could be the Newtown of the plain of the horse, moy n’each.[xliv]


1654-6             Oakestowne                            Civil Survey, p. 248.

1660c.             Oakestowne                            Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Oakstown                                Larkin’s Map

1854                Oakstown                                Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan provided Baile na Daróige, town of the oak. The townland may appear in earlier documents as a variant. The place name Derysland or Diersland appears in an indenture of 1667 and the place name Derisland in a rent of 1610. However these names could be derived from the occupation of dyer of cloth.[xlv]


1812                Peterstown                              Larkin’s Map

1854                Peterstown                              Griffith’s Valuation

Peter as a name was introduced to England and Ireland by the Normans. The usual Norman version was Piers or Pierce.[xlvi]


1559                Phillemen’s land                      Patent, Butler, p. 122.

1610                Phelim’s Land                         Rent, Butler, p. 128.

1654-6             Phillinstowne                          Civil Survey, p. 248.

1660c.             Phillinstowne                          Books of Survey and Distribution     

1667                Phelimynsland                         Indenture, Butler, p. 140.

1812                Phillinstown                            Larkin’s Map

1854                Phillinstown                            Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Phillinstown from Baile Philín meaning the town of the Phillin family. Phillin may be derived from Phylan a variant of Phelan in use in Westmeath and north Offaly. However earlier recorded versions of the name suggest that it was Phellim’s town. Phelim or Feidlimid was a popular name in the early period  throughout Gaelic Ireland. In the form Feidhlim and Féidhlim it was popular among the O’Reillys and other families during the medieval period.[xlvii]


1654-6             Fellistown                               Civil Survey, p.249.

1655                Fellixtowne                             Petty’s Map, Navan.

1660c.             Fillistowne                              Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Phillestown                             Larkin’s Map

1854                Phillistown                              Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan stated that locally this townland bore the same local name as the nearby townland as Phillinstown.[xlviii] Early occurrences suggest that it was town or property of Felix.


1812                Rahineacrea                             Larkin’s Map

1854                Raheenacrehy                          Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Raheennacrehy from Raithin na Croiche, meaning the little fort of the gallows, a place of execution. A rath consisted of an earthen rampart and was a dwelling place within an enclosure. The Archaeological Survey recorded an enclosure in this townland which was possibly the little fort. Rath or its derivatives appear as the first component in sixty of the townland names of county Meath.[xlix]


1559 Ballycorry alias

Roriestown                              Patent, Butler, p. 123.

1654-6             Roristowne                              Civil Survey, p. 171.

1660c.             Rorristowne                            Books of Survey and Distribution

1667                 Ballyrory alias

Roriestown alias                      Indenture, Butler, p. 142.


1802                Roristown                               Statistical Survey

1812                Roristown                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Roristown                               Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan provided Baile Ruaidhri for Roristown, meaning Rory’s town. Rory is a derivitave of rua, meaning red, and was a favourite name in medieval Ireland, especially favoured among the O’Connors.[l]


1854                Shanlothe                                Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Shanlothe from Seanlogh meaning the old reward.[li] The first element seems to be sean meaning old but the origin of the second element is unclear. It is a small townland near to the town of Trim and there appear to be no early recording of the name. The modern pronunciation is as the name is spelled and adds little to the derivation of its meaning.


1471                Staplestown                            Grant, Butler, p. 94

1559                Steepleton                               Patent, Butler, p. 122.

1610                Stepleton                                 Rent, Butler, p. 128.

1624                Steepleton                               Grant, Butler, p. 130.

1654-6             Steepletowne                          Civil Survey, p. 249.

1655                Steeplestowne Commons        Petty’s Map, Navan.

1660c.             Steepletowne                          Books of Survey and Distribution

1667 Staplestown alias

                        Steepletown alias                    Indenture, Butler, p. 141.


1812                Steeplestown                           Larkin’s Map

1854                Steeplestown                           Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan provided Baile Cloghthighe for Steeplestown, the town of the steeple or round tower belfry. John O’Donovan said that there was a clogteach there while Dean Butler, the local historian of the time, disagreed. The annals record a round tower at Tullyard but when the boundaries of the townland were laid out the tower was in Steeplestown. The tower was burned in 1171 by Tiernan O’Rourke. Barrow lists this round tower as a disappeared tower.[lii]


1542                Stonhall                                   Confiscation, Butler, p. 214.

1540-41           Stonehall                                 Monastic possessions, p. 304.

1542                Stonhall                                   Grant, Butler, p. 213.

1854                Stonehall                                 Griffith’s Valuation

A hall is a large place covered by a roof but there is no record of a significant building here. There is a record of Stonefield in a patent of 1559, a rent of 1610 and an indenture of 1667. There are seven townlands named ‘Stonehall’ in Ireland.[liii]


807                  Vadum Truimm           Book of Armagh[liv]

929                  Ath Trum                    Four Masters

1128                Ath Truim                   Annals of Ulster

1196                Athrim                         Papal Charter[lv]

1231                Atrum                          Cartularies of Llanthony[lvi]

1240                Trum                            Register of Hospital of St. John the Baptist[lvii]

1257                Crum (Trum)               Act, Butler, p. 21.

1340                Trym                            Register of Hospital of St. John the Baptist [lviii]

1444                Ath Truim                   Annals in Misc. Archae.

1447                Athtrym                      Annals in Misc. Archae.

1458                Trum                            Gravestone[lix]

1464                Ath Trym                    Annals in Misc. Archae.

1488                Ath Trim                     Four Masters

1506                Ath Truim                   Four Masters

1533                Tryme                          Grant, Butler, p. 120.

1540-41           Trymme                       Monastic possessions, p. 292.

1540-41           Trim                             Monastic possessions, p. 298

1540-41           Trym                            Monastic possessions, p. 302.

1624                Trym                            Grant, Butler, p. 130.

1654-6             Tryme                          Civil Survey, p. 169.

1783                Trim                             Taylor and Skinner’s Map[lx]

1812                Trim                             Larkin’s Map

1854                Trim                             Griffith’s Valuation

Trim is derived from Ath Truim the ford of the elder tree. The other two main towns in Meath –  Navan and Kells changed to using the Irish version of their names in the 1920s but Trim did not. The town of Navan converted to an Irish version An Uaimh in 1922 but the change failed to attract support of the locals and the name reverted to Navan in 1970. Kells changed to Ceannanus Mór in the early part of the twentieth century but reverted to Kells in 1993.[lxi]

Townsparks North

1854                Townsparks                             Griffith’s Valuation

This was the property of the town and is located in the centre of the town and includes lands in the vicinity of St. Patrick’s Cathedral on the northside of the town and the site of Franciscan friary on the southside of the town. There are ‘Townparks’ in the parishes of Navan, Athboy and Kells as well as at Trim.[lxii]

Tremblestown also Tremleston/Trimlestown/Trimleston

1533                Trynletistown                          Grant, Butler, p. 120.

1540-41           Trymletiston                            Monastic possessions, p. 297.

1654-6             Trimlestowne                          Civil Survey, p. 247.

1655                Trimlestowne                          Petty’s Map, Navan.

1660c.             Trimblestowne                        Books of Survey and Distribution

1783                Trimleston                               Taylor and Skinner’s Map[lxiii]

1802                Trimlestown                            Statistical Survey

1812                Trimblestown                          Larkin’s Map

1854                Tremblestown                         Griffith’s Valuation

In 1461 Robert Barnewall was created Baron Trimlestown by Edward IV. Baile Rinile was the local Irish name for the townland in O’Donovan’s time. The church, tower house and memorial are associated with the Barnewall family.[lxiv]


1171                Telcha Áird                             Four Masters

1175                Tulca Airdi                              Annals of Tigernach[lxv]

1177                Tulcha Aird                             Annals of Tigernach[lxvi]

1540-41           Tyllaughard                             Monastic possessions, p. 309.

1654-6             Tullaghard                               Civil Survey, p. 249.

1655                Tullaghard                               Petty’s Map, Navan.

1660c.             Tullahard                                 Books of Survey and Distribution

1812                Tullaghard                               Larkin’s Map

1854                Tullyard                                   Griffith’s Valuation

O’Donovan derives Tullyard from Tulaigh Ard, meaning high hill and stated that it was the seat of O Coindealbhain. Tullyard was the centre for the kings of Lóegaire Breg. The name element, Tulach,  meaning hill, has a widespread distribution throughout the country but by far more common in Ulster. Tulachard makes 16 appearances as Tullyard. There are twelve townlands in Meath where the component Tullach or its derivatives are the first component. It has been suggested that Tullyard was the site of an early church identified in the  Book of Leinster as Ciaran Tulche Airdde, Ciaran Aird Heó and Brenaind Aird Eo. From this it would appear that the original name for the place was Ard Eó, the height of the yews. [lxvii]


1812                Whitehall                                 Larkin’s Map

1854                Whitehall                                 Griffith’s Valuation

Whitehall would signify a white building but could be White’s hall as there is a White’s land recorded in a grant of 1624 and an indenture of 1667.[lxviii]


1753                Woodside of Clonfain                        Corporation Map[lxix]                

1854                Woodside                                Griffith’s Valuation

The woods and forests of Trim manor are mentioned in a deed of 1234 and in a patent of Phillip and Mary 1559.[lxx] Woodside adjoins Oakstown townland.


More than half the townland names reflect the ownership of land e.g. Addenstown, Aghathomas, Ballymulmore, Bellewstown and Dunlever.

Human habitation is reflected in the elements dún, ráth, baile and town in the townland names e.g. Dunlever, Raheenacrehy, Ballymulmore, Roristown. Other habitation related names include Stonehall and Whitehall.

Cultivation and field systems are reflected in the elements agha, ceapach and cluain in names such as Aghatomas, Ballynafeeragh, the Broad, Capranny, Clondavan, Clonee, Cloneens and Fearmore.

Physical features are reflected in the elements cluain, doirin, moy and tulach which occur as Clondavan, Newtownmoynagh, Drinadaly and Tullyard. Man-made features are shown in the elements: ath and bothair as in Trim and  Batterstown, Other names which feature physical features include The Broad, Greatfurze and Newhaggard.

The distribution of woodlands in the area is reflected in the townland names of Drinadaly, Oakstown and Woodside and may be associated with Fostersholding and Fosterstown. Bionyms include Capranny, Crowpark, Dogstown, Deringdaly, Fearmore, Great Furze, Oakstown and Woodside.

The ecclesiastical element cill provides two townland names in Kilmurry and Kilnagros. Steeplestown commemorates an early ecclesiastical establishment with a round tower. There are a number of examples of ecclesiastical names from the medieval period such as Black Friary, Friarspark, Maudlinand and Monktown. More modern ecclesiastical references include Dunlever Glebe, Glebe and Glebe of Trim.

Trim parish has nineteen townland names with the element, town, which is an indication of the Anglo-Norman influence. The kingdom of Meath was granted to Hugh de Lacy in 1172 and he fixed on Trim as his centre. There are only two bally place names. O’Connor suggested that the interchangeability of baile and town shows how thoroughly the cultures of the Gael and Norman fused in hybrid areas during the course of the later medieval period.[lxxi] The element town is usually associated with a personal name.  On two occasions it is associated with a topographical feature as Batterstown and Steepletown and there are two instances of bionyms – Oakstown and Dogstown.

Of the fifty nine townland names in the parish of Trim thirty nine townlands have Anglo-Norman, English or modern elements and twenty nine townlands have Irish/Gaelic elements. Despite the early conquest and colonisation of the area by the Anglo-Normans approximately half the townland names contain an Irish element. This would be considerably under the 86% of the townland names estimated as being rooted in the Gaelic language antionally.[lxxii] A sign of the success of the colonisation would be the fact that twenty four of the townlands have no Irish element. Cross borrowing such as Aghathomas, an Irish element allied with a Norman name, may belong to the period of the Gaelic Revival in the fourteenth century. New English elements and modern names include Broad, Charter School Land, Crowpark and Glebe.

With regard to the structure and formation of the townland names the most common type is the noun and personal name as in Addanstown or Deringdaly. The next most numerous type is the noun and the noun as in Batterstown or Friarspark. There are incidents of noun and adjective as Newhaggard or Whitehall. Nouns on their own provide names such as Broad or Clonee. Noun, article and noun provide names such as Ballynafeeragh or Kilnagros.

The townland names of Trim parish demonstrate the influence of the Norman invasion on existing Gaelic names and also the persistence of these Gaelic names despite colonisation.

[i] Ordnance Survey Name Books County Meath, p. 1350; Ronan Coghlan, Irish christian names (London, 1979), p. 116; Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Fidelma Maguire, Gaelic personal names (Dublin, 1981), p. 12.

[ii] Name Books, p. 1350; Deirdre Flanagan & Laurence Flanagan, Irish place names (Dublin, 1994), p. 12; Jack Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath (Kells, 1978), pp 3-4; Patrick J. O’Connor, Atlas of Irish place-names (Newcastle West, 2001), p. 17.

[iii] Coghlan, Christian names, p. 116; E.G. Withycombe, The concise dictionary of English christian names (Oxford, 1977), pp 279-80.

[iv] Name Books, p. 1367; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names, p. 130.

[v] O’Connor, Atlas, pp 5, 21; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 6-12; Flanagan & Flanagan, Irish place Names, p. 21.

[vi] Name Books, p. 1353.

[vii] Name Books, p. 1367; Flanagan & Flanagan, Irish place names, p. 32; P.W. Joyce, The origins and history of Irish names of places (Dublin, 1869), i, p. 370; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 14.

[viii] Name Books, p. 1360; Edward MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland (Dublin, 1980), p.16; Mark Anthony Lower, A dictionary of surnames (London, 1860), p. 24; Edward MacLysaght, More Irish families (Dublin, 1982), p. 32; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 15.

[ix] John O’Heyne, The Irish Dominicans of the seventeenth century (Dundalk, 1902), pp 39-41; Ambrose Coleman, The Ancient Dominican Foundations in Ireland (Dundalk, 1902) pp 32-3; Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions 1540-1541, p  309; Michael J. Moore, Archaeological inventory of County Meath (Dublin, 1987), p. 116.

[x] Name Books, p. 1369; Donnchadh Ó Meachair, A short history of County Meath (Navan, c. 1930), p.131; Edward MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland (Dublin, 1980), p. 25; Patrick Wolfe, Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall (Dublin, 1923), p. 248.

[xi] Name Books, p. 1352; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 97; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 228; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 41.

[xii] Name Books, p. 1365; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names. p. 44; Annals of the Four Masters, sub. 844; MacLysaght, More Irish families, pp 49-50; Wolfe, Sloinnte, p. 448; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p.125.

[xiii] Taylor and Skinner, Maps of the roads of Ireland (London, 1783), p. 56.

[xiv] Name Books, p. 1359; Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of Irish local history (Cork, 2004), p. 60; Mark Hennessy, Trim Irish historic town atlas No. 14 (Dublin, 2004), p. 13; Kenneth Milne, The Irish charter schools 1730-1830 (Dublin, 1997), p. 348; General alphabetical index to the townlands and towns, parishes and baronies of Ireland (Dublin, 1861), p. 235.

[xv] Name Books, p. 1349; Joyce, The origins and history,  i, p. 233; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 25-7; Wolfe, Sloinnte, p. 509.

[xvi] Name Books, p. 1367, O’Connor, Atlas, p. 53.

[xvii] Name Books, p. 1354; Joyce, The origins and history,  i, p. 237.

[xviii] Reports for the Commissioners on Municipal Corporations in Ireland (1835), pp 269-70; Name Books, p. 1355.

[xix] Fitzsimons, The Plains of Royal Meath, pp 28-9.

[xx] Municipal Corporations, p. 265.

[xxi] Name Books, p. 1353.

[xxii] Name Books, p. 1368; Edward MacLysaght, Irish families (Dublin, 1985), p. 70; Wolfe, Sloinnte p. 493; Moore, Archaeological inventory pp 23; 68; 99.

[xxiii] Name Books, p. 1360.

[xxiv] Name Books, p. 1362.

[xxv] Name Books, p. 1369; Wolfe, Sloinnte, p. 512; MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland, p. 87.

[xxvi] Name Books, p. 1352; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 73; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 39-40; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 280; Ó Corráin  & Maguire, Personal names, p. 122; Butler, Trim, p. 178;  Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 23.

[xxvii] Name Books, p. 1368.

[xxviii] Name Books, p. 1362; Lower, A dictionary of surnames, p.119; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 43; James Mills & M.J. Mc Enery (eds), Calendar of the Gormanston register (Dublin, 1916), p. 156.

[xxix] Name Books, p. 1348.

[xxx] Name Books, p. 1372; Moore, Archaeological Inventory, p. 136; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 53; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 47-8; General alphabetical index, pp 235; 477-81.

[xxxi] Name Books, p. 1356.

[xxxii] Name Books, p. 1350; MacLysaght, More Irish families, p. 95; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 48.

[xxxiii] Name Books, p. 1351.

[xxxiv] Name Books, p. 1361; MacLysaght, Irish families, p. 113; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 111.

[xxxv] Name Books, p. 1360; O’Connor, Atlas, pp 11, 45, 115; Joyce, The origins and history, i, pp 314-5; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 56-9; Mary Lee Nolan, ‘Irish Pilgrimage: The Different Tradition’ in Annals of association of American geographers, 73, no 3 (Sept. 1983) p. 424.

[xxxvi] Name Books, p. 1352.

[xxxvii] Name Books, p. 1356; Extents of Irish monastic possessions 1540-1541, pp 293, 303, 306.

[xxxviii] Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 118; Hennessy, Trim town atlas. map 7, map 8; C.C. Ellison, ‘Dangan, Mornington and the Wellesleys – Notes on the rise and fall of a great Meath estate’ in Ríocht na Midhe, IV (1967), pp 21-5.

[xxxix] Michael Potterton, Medieval Trim history and archaeology (Dublin, 2005), p. 343.

[xl] Potterton, Medieval Trim, p. 342; Name Books, p. 1372; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 135; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 65.

[xli] Extents of Irish monastic possessions 1540-41, p. 269; Anthony Cogan, The diocese of Meath ancient and modern (Dublin, 1862), i, pp 118-20; Calendar of patent and close rolls of chancery in Ireland, Henry VIII-Elizabeth James Morrin (ed.) (1861), i, pp 280, 281.

[xlii] Name Books, p. 1365; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 101; Joyce, The origins and history, i, pp 422, 424, ii, p. 279.

[xliii] Name Books, p. 1359; Hennessy, Trim town atlas, p. 9; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 119; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 72.

[xliv] Name Books, p. 1366; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath. pp 73-4; Joyce, The origins and history, ii, p. 126.

[xlv] Name Books, p. 1350; Butler, Trim, pp 128; 140.

[xlvi] Withycombe, English christian names, p. 243.

[xlvii] Name Books, p. 1350; MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland, p. 245; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names, p. 95.

[xlviii] Name Books, p. 1349.

[xlix] Name Books, p. 1347; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 105; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 79-83.

[l] Name Books, p. 1361; Coghlan, Christian names, p. 104; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names, p. 158.

[li] Name Books, p. 1363.

[lii] Name Books, p. 1348; Michael Herity, (ed) Ordnance Survey letters Meath 1836 (Dublin, 2001), p. 67-6; Annals of the Four Masters, sub. 1171, Annals of Inisfallen, sub 1171; George Lennox Barrow, The round towers of Ireland a study and gazetteer (Dublin, 1979), p. 170.

[liii] Butler, Trim, pp 122; 128; 140; General alphabetical index, p. 840.

[liv] Ludwig Bieler, (ed.) The Patrician texts in the Book of Armagh (Dublin, 1979), pp 166-71.

[lv] Maurice P. Sheehy, (ed)  Pontificia hibernicia. Medieval Papal Chancery documents concerning  Ireland 640-1261 i, (Dublin, 1965), p. 84.

[lvi] Eric St. John Brooks, (ed.) The Irish cartularies of Llanthony Prima and Secunda (Dublin, 1953), p. 37.

[lvii] Eric St. John Brooks, (ed.) Register of the hospital of St. John the Baptist  (Dublin, 1936), p. 176.

[lviii] Register of the hospital of St. John the Baptist,  p. 181.

[lix] Gravestone to Walter Thoumbe in St. Patrick’s Church of Ireland Cathedral, Loman Street, Trim.

[lx] Taylor and Skinner, Maps, p. 56.

[lxi] Name Books, p. 1377; Flanagan & Flanagan, Irish place names pp 156-7; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 517; Herity, Ordnance Survey letters p. 67; Diarmuid Ó Murchadha, ‘Odhbha and Navan’ in Ríocht na Midhe, viii, no 4, (1992-1993), p.112; S.I. No. 156/1993: Local Government (change of name of Urban District) Order, 1993.

[lxii] Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 92.

[lxiii] Taylor and Skinner, Maps, p. 56.

[lxiv] Matthew O’Reilly, ‘The Barnewalls’ in  Ríocht na Midhe, i, no 3 (1957), p. 66; Name Books, p. 1351; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 147.

[lxv] Annals of Tigernach, sub 1175, p. 291.

[lxvi] Annals of Tigernach, sub 1177, p. 298.

[lxvii] Name Books, p. 1348; Alfred P. Smyth,  Celtic Leinster – Towards an historical geography of early Irish civilization A.D. 500-1600. (Dublin, 1982), p. 34; 46-7; Mark Clinton,  ‘Settlement Dynamics in Co. Meath: the Kingdom of Lóegaire’ in Peritia 14 (2000), pp 373, 377; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 155; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 389; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 93; Diarmuid Ó Murchadha and Kevin Murray ‘Place-names’ in Neil Buttimer, Colin Rynne, Helen Guerin (eds) The heritage of Ireland (Cork, 2000) p.153

[lxviii] Butler, Trim, pp. 130; 141.

[lxix] Name Books, p. 1350

[lxx] Gormanston register, p. 156; Butler, Trim, p. 123.

[lxxi] O’Connor, Atlas, p. 6.

[lxxii] O’Connor, Atlas, p. 8.