Derivation of Townland Names: The occurrence of Gaelic, Norman and English place name elements in Trim Civil Parish
This study focuses on the derivation of the townland names of the civil parish of Trim. The civil parish of Trim is located partly in the barony of Lower Moyfenrath and partly in the barony of Navan Upper in the south west of County Meath.
The civil parish unit is based on the medieval parochial system and is the area, which was served by a priest in medieval times. The civil parish of Trim has changed over the centuries. Trimlestown was a separate parish and contained the townlands of Trimblestown, Dunlever, Gormanstown, Oakstown, Phillinstown, Addenstown and Kilnacross. These townlands are now part of the civil parish of Trim. The townlands of Ifferknock and St. Johns were part of the parish of Trim but are now part of the civil parish of Laracor.
The townland is the smallest administrative unit used in Ireland. The modern townlands were first mapped by the Ordnance Survey 1824-46. These were based on the existing land divisions, some of which pre-dated the Norman invasion. During the first mapping of the country John O’Donovan examined the existing townland names in order to create a standardised spelling.
The names of the townlands are standardised as in the Name Books, which were compiled by O’Donovan and other surveyors. By searching out the root elements of the place names it can be ascertained when and how the name came into existence. Townland names in Trim are derived from Gaelic, Old English, New English and modern origins. Each townland is examined as to its orthography in various historical records and the meaning of its name from O’Donovan and other sources.
List of abbreviations:
Books of Survey and Distribution – National Archives Ireland.
Butler – Richard Butler, Some notices of the castle and of the ecclesiastical buildings of Trim (Trim, 1854).
Larkin’s Map – William Larkin, Map of County Meath (1812).
Monastic Possessions – Newport B. White, (ed.) Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions 1540-41 (Dublin, 1943)
Civil Survey – Robert C. Simington, The Civil Survey A.D. 1644-1656 County of Meath (Dublin,1940).
Petty’s Map – Map of the Barony of Navan in the county of Meath (1655) or Map of the Barony of Moyfenragh in the county of Meath by William Morgan (1655). Published by the Ordnance Survey, Southampton (1908).
Statistical Survey – Map of County Meath, engraved by J. Taylor (Donnybrook, 1802) in Robert Thompson Statistical Survey of County Meath (Dublin, 1802).
1540-41 Adamstown Monastic Possessions, p. 292.
1654-6 Addingstowne Civil Survey, p. 248.
1655 Adingstowne Petty’s Map – Navan.
1660c. Addingstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1693 Adamstown Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192.
1854 Addanstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Addenstown from Baile Adáin, Adan’s town but it could be Aodhán’s town. Aodhán is derived from the personal name Aodh, meaning fire and usually anglicised as Hugh. However it is possible the name is diminutive of Adam and the townland could be Adhamhnán’s or little Adam’s town, corresponding with the earliest occurrence of the name. Addanstown is in the northern end of the parish of Trim. There is an Adamstown in the neighbouring parish of Laracor just to the south of Trim.[i]
1854 Aghathomas Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Aghathomas from Achadh Thomais, Thomas’s field. Achadh is the most widespread and least specific term for a field and is very common as an initial element of townland names throughout the country. A field could simply be a clearing in the wood. Eight townlands in Meath commence with Agh meaning field. The element Achadh is primarily found to the north and west of Meath in counties Longford, Leitrim, Cavan, Fermanagh Tyrone and Monaghan.[ii]
The male name, Thomas, is of Aramaic origin, and occurs in the bible as one of the apostle’s names ‘doubting Thomas’. Thomas was a popular name among the Normans in Ireland due to devotion to St. Thomas à Becket. From the thirteenth century onwards Thomas became one of the commonest names in use in England and Ireland.[iii]
1559 Ballymulmurry Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Ballimullmore Civil Survey, p. 171
1667 Ballymulmory alias
Ballymulmore Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1660c. Ballimullmore Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Ballymulmore Larkin’s Map
1854 Ballymulmore Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Ballymulmore from Baile Mhaolmórdha, Mulmore’s town. Máel mórda is derived from mórda, meaning great or haughty. This was a favourite name among the early Leinstermen and borne by several of their kings. In the latter middle ages it was especially favoured by the O’Dempseys, O’Reillys and the Mac Sweeneys. It has generally been anglicised Myles among the O’Reillys. The O’Reilly’s of Cavan were given the name Muintir Maolmordha or the people of Maolmordha.[iv]
The element baile occurs in one tenth of all townland names. In Meath baile or a derivation occurs as the first syllable in 111 out of 1600 townland names or approximately 7%. The earliest occurrence of baile in monastic charters (e.g. Kells) was followed by an increase in its distribution following the Anglo-Norman use of the Latin villa and the English tūn qualified by the name of a feudal tenant.[v]
Ballynafeeragh (1st and 2nd Divisions)
1559 Leyeton Patent, Butler, p. 122.
1610 Leyton Rent, Butler, p. 128.
1624 Leyton alias
Balleneferagh Grant, Butler, p. 128
1667 Leytown alias
Ballyneferagh Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1812 Balinaveeragh Larkin’s Map
1854 Ballynafeeragh Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Ballynafeeragh from Baile na bhFéartach, meaning the town of the grassy fields.[vi] This would agree with its early appearance in documents as lea fields, which are grassland.
1559 Batrestown Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Baterstowne Civil Survey, p.170.
1667 Baterstown alias
Batterstown Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1660c. Batterstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Batterstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Batterstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Batterstown from Baile an Bóthair, meaning the town of the road. The word bóthar means a road or avenue originally for cattle and is derived from bó, meaning cow. There are three other Batterstowns in County Meath.[vii]
1399 Bellewston License, Butler, p. 92.
1470 Bellewstown Statute, Butler, p. 90.
1559 Bedlowyston Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1610 Bedlowston Rent, Butler, p. 127.
1624 Bedlowestown Grant, Butler, p. 130.
1654-6 Bellewstowne Civil Survey, p. 172.
1655 Bedlowestowne Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.
1660c. Bedlowestown Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Bedlestown Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1693 Bellewstown Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192
1802 Bellewstown Statistical Survey
1812 Bedlewstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Bellewstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Bellewstown from Baile Bheileóg meaning the town of the Bellew family. Bellew is a Norman toponymic (de Belleau). The name may be derived from bel eau, the fair water. The family settled in Louth and Meath shortly after the Anglo-Norman invasion. There are two other Bellewstown in County Meath.[viii]
Black Friary (1st and 2nd Division, north part, south part)
1654-6 Lands of ye Blackfryars Civil Survey, p. 249.
1812 Black Fryars Larkin’s Map
1854 Blackfriary Griffith’s Valuation
The Black Friary or Dominican Friary at Trim was founded in 1263 by Geoffrey de Geneville. Chapters of the Dominican Order were held in the monastery in 1285, 1300 and 1315 and the Irish parliament met at the Black Friary in 1446. At the dissolution of the monasteries in 1540 the friars were dispossessed. The property of the Friary included the site of the church and cloister, orchard, garden and cemetery, a close of pasture adjacent to the walls of the house contained 3 acres. This is the location of Black Friary (2nd division). The property of the monastery included thirty acres held by John Fyan and thirty acres held by David Lloyd in the common field of Trym and six acres in Tullaghard held by Llyod. This property formed the foundation for the first division section of the townland. The friary site is located in the second division with the first division having a rectilinear enclosure site.[ix]
1559 Ballybrennocke Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Brancokstowne Civil Survey, p. 170.
1660c. Brannockstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Ballybrenock alias
Brenockstown alias Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1802 Branningstown Statistical Survey
1812 Brannackstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Brannockstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Brannockstown from Baile Bhranóig, Brannock’s town. However another derivation seems more logical: Baile na mBreathnach – the townland of the Walshes. MacLysaght suggests that Brannock is a toponymic from Brecknock but can appear as a synonym of Walsh Breathnach. The Walshes, meaning from Wales, settled in Ireland at the time of the Anglo-Norman invasion. Wolfe disagrees with this derivation of the surname and says that Breathnach is a separate name.[x]
1559 Broadmede Patent, Butler, p. 122.
1610 Bridemade Rent, Butler, p. 128
1667 Broadmeade Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1854 Broad Griffith’s Valuation
The Broad was a meadow.
1854 Capranny Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Capranny from Ceap (ach) Raithnighe, meaning the plot of the ferns. An aerial photograph shows the cropmark of circular enclosure which could be the plot. P.W. Joyce describes ceapach as ‘ a plot of land laid down for tillage.’ Ceapach features in townland names predominantly as a prefix and here it is qualified by ‘of the ferns.’ Ceapach is generally found to the south of Meath in Munster.[xi]
1533 Cabraght Grant, Butler, p. 121.
1559 Carbragh Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1610 Carbragh Rent, Butler, p. 128.
1624 Carbragh Grant, Butler, p. 130.
1655 Carbarberstowne Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.
1654-6 Carberstowne Civil Survey, 168.
1660c. Carbersberstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Carbragh alias
Carrberstown Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1693 Carbristown Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192.
1812 Carberstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Carberrystown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Carberystown from Baile Chairbre, Carbery’s town. Cairbre was the one of the most popular personal name in early Irish society. Cairbre, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, gave his name to the barony of Carbury Co. Kildare. Locally Cairbre, son of Colman, Abbot of Trim died in 844. As a family name the principal sept of Ó Cairbre were chieftains of the barony of Clonlonan, co. Westmeath. Another family derived their names from Carbury, Co. Kildare. A member of this family is mentioned in a tenancy on the Meath-Kildare border in 1304. The townland has a large enclosure and at the highest point a low rectangular platform, possibly the homestead of the Carbery family.[xii]
Charter School Land
1783 Charter School Taylor and Skinners’s Map[xiii]
1802 Charter School Statistical Survey
1812 Charter School Larkin’s Map
1854 Charter-school land Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan said that this townland was the property of the Incorporated Society and contained the Charter School House. In 1733-4 the Incorporated Society for promoting English Protestant Working Schools in Ireland was granted its charter. The schools promoted the reading of scripture as well as educating poor children in industry, good husbandry and loyalty to the crown. The schools promoted the Protestant religion to its Catholic students in an attempt to convert them. Trim Charter School opened in 1748, became a day school in 1821 and closed in 1881. There are townlands named ‘Charter school lands’ in Kilkenny and Tipperary.[xiv]
1654-6 Clondavan Civil Survey, p. 249.
1655 Dundanon Petty’s Map, Navan.
1660c. Dundavan Books of Survey and Distribution.
1812 Clondavan Larkin’s Map
1854 Clondavan Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Clondavan from Cluain Dubhain meaning Duane’s lawn or meadow. Cluain is derived from meadow, a fertile piece of ground, surrounded or nearly surrounded by bog or marsh on one side and water on the other. Clondavan is situated in a marshy area and two streams originate in the townland. There are forty-one townlands in County Meath with names which commence with ‘Clon.’ Duane or Ó Dubháin means descendant of the black person. This Meath family were lords of Cnodhbha (Knowth) but were dispossessed and dispersed throughout Leinster.[xv]
1559 Clony Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Cloney Civil Survey, p. 171b.
1660c. Cloney Books of Survey and Distributio
1667 Ballyowen alias
Cloney Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1812 Cloney Larkin’s Map
1854 Clonee Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Clonee from Cluain Í, the low lawn or meadow. Cluain place-names are most common in wet and spongy regions where meadowland is a valued resource. Ballyowen means the town of the river.[xvi]
1854 Cloneens Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Cloneens from Cluaininidhe, little lawns or meadows. The placename, Clooneen, is common in the west of Ireland[xvii]
Commons North and South (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th divisions)
1540-41 Common field of Trym Monastic possession, p. 308.
1654-6 Comons of Trim Civil Survey, p. 168.
1655 Commons Petty’s Map, Navan.
1854 Commons Griffith’s Valuation
The Commons of Trim was held by the corporation of Trim but was not held as commonage after 1705. This land was for the use of the burgesses of the town. In 1753 the Commons amounted to 479 acres. The 1753 map provides the name Krickeens for the 5th division of this townland.[xviii]
Other towns in the county also had commons. In Meath there are townlands named ‘Commons’ in the parishes of Duleek, Navan, Ratoath, Skreen, Slane and Slane in addition to those at Trim.[xix]
Corporationland north (1st, 2nd , 3rd 4th division)
1854 Corporationland Griffith’s Valuation
The corporation of Trim was first given a charter by Walter de Lacy at the end of the twelfth century.[xx] This was the land vested in the corporation.
Crowpark (1st division, 2nd division)
1812 Crowpark Larkin’s Map
1854 Crowpark Griffith’s Valuation
O Donovan said this name was derived from a rookery.[xxi]
1559 Gallestown Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Dalistown Civil Survey, p. 171.
1660c. Dallistowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Gallestown alias
Dalestown alias Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1812 Dalystown Larkin’s Map
1854 Dalystown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Dalystown from Baile Uí Dhálaigh meaningO’Daly’s town. The Daly’s were originally from Westmeath and were chieftains of Corca Adhaimh in Westmeath. The Daly surname is a very distinguished name in Gaelic literature. The first recorded O’Daly was Curonnacht Ó Dailigh who presided over a bardic school in Meath in the early twelfth century. The name is one of the thirty most common names in Ireland. A ring-ditch, ringfort and enclosure site in the townland may have been the home of the O’Dalys.[xxii]
1471 Droynydaly Statute, Butler, p. 92.
1654-6 Drinidaly Civil Survey, p. 172.
1655 Drinedaly Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh
1660c. Drinidaly Books of Survey and Distribution
1802 Drinidaly Statistical Survey
1812 Drinidaly? Larkin’s Map
1854 Derrindaly Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Drinadaly from Doirín Uí Dhálaigh meaning O’Daly’s little oak wood.[xxiii] The placename element doire which is anglicised ‘derry’ is found mainly to north and west of Meath in Connacht and Ulster.
Dogstown (1st, 2nd, 3rd division)
1559 Doggestown Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Doggstowne Civil Survey
1660c. Doggstowne Books of Survey and Distribution.
1667 Doggestown alias
Doggstown Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1812 Dogstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Dogstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Dogstown from Baile na Madadh meaning the town of the dogs[xxiv]
1559 Dowlestown Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Dolistowne Civil Survey, p. 170.
1660c. Doelistowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Dowliestown alias
Doelistown Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1812 Doolistown Larkin’s Map
1854 Doolystown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Doolistown from Baile Uí Dhubhlaigh meaning O’Dooley’s town. The Dooleys or Ó Dubhlaoich were lords of Fertullagh, which is nearby in Westmeath. The family were driven out of their homelands by the O’Melaghlins and Tyrrells and migrated to the Ely O’Carroll country. Wolfe says that there was another branch who were from Clann Mhaonaigh and a branch of the O’Melaghlins of Meath who were dispossessed in the eleventh century. Ó Dubhlaoich is derived from ‘dubh laoch’ meaning black hero.[xxv]
1553 Dunlevyrs alias
Dunlwyrs alias Grant, Butler, p. 120.
1559 Dolyvers Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Dunlevers Civil Survey, p. 247.
1655 Dunlevere Petty’s Map, Navan.
1655 Comon of Dunlevere Petty’s Map, Navan.
1660 Dunleivers Grant, Butler, p. 178.
1660c. Dunleivers Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Dunlever alias
Dunlivers Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1812 Dunkeever? Larkin’s Map
1854 Dunlever Glebe Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Dunlever from Dún Libhir meaning Leever’s fort. Dún means fort or fortress, the dwelling of kings and chieftains. It is one of the most evenly distributed of Irish place name elements. Dun or its derivatives appear as the first component in twelve townland names of County Meath. Joyce stated that a great number of duns have taken their names from either the original founders or subsequent possessors. Liber is a personal name and probably a borrowing from the Latin liber meaning free. The name was largely clerical and according to an early source there were eighteen saints of the name. Dunlever became glebe lands after it was granted to Dr. John Crookshanke, Vicar of Trim in 1660 with succession to the vicars of Trim forever. The Archaeological Survey recorded the remains of a ring-ditch and oval area, which may have been Dunlever. A large ring fort in the northern part of the townland is visible on the 1836 O.S. map. [xxvi]
1854 Fearmore Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Fearmore from Fiair Mór (Féar Mór), meaning great ley fields.[xxvii]
1854 Fostersholding Griffith’s Valuation
1624 Fosterstown Grant, Butler, p. 130.
1654-6 Fosterstowne Civil Survey, p. 168.
1655 Fosterstowne Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.
1660c. Fosterstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Forrestown alias
Fosterstown Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1693 Fosterstowne Inquisition at Navan, Butler, p. 192.
1802 Fosterstown Statistical Survey
1812 Fosterstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Fosterstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan stated that Foster was a family name. Foster may be a contraction of Forester but may also be derived from someone who fosters children. In Athboy parish to the north of Trim there is a townland named ‘Fosterfields.’ A John le Forester, provost of Athboy, is mentioned in a deed of 1329. Fosterstown is south of the town of Trim and Fostersholding is north of the town.[xxviii]
Friarspark North and South 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th 6th division)
Friaryland (3rd Division)
1654-6 Fryarsparke Civil Survey, p. 170.
1660c. Fryarsparke Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Friarspark Larkin’s Map
1854 Friarspark Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan said this was the park of the friars, the lands belonging to the friars.[xxix] This property belonged to one of the monasteries of Trim. There were three orders of friars in Trim : Dominican, Franciscan and Augustinian. Having examined the extents of the confiscations of the monasteries it is not possible to ascertain to which monastery the lands belonged.
1854 Glebe Griffith’s Valuation
A glebe is a portion of land assigned to a clergyman as part of his benefice. This glebe was surrounded by the townland of Ballymulmore and was the site of Clonee church, the foundations of which survive. The place name element Cluain is associated with monastic settlements such as Clonard and Clonmacnoise. In Meath there are townlands named ‘Glebe’ in the parishes of Killallon, Kilbride, Loughcrew, Killeagh, Julianstown, Moynalty, Kilbeg, Rathmolyon, Ardbraccan, Siddan, Killaconnigan, Clongill, Rathregan, Killeen and Dowth. There are townlands named ‘Glebe’ in almost every county in Ireland.[xxx]
Glebe of Trim
O’Donovan stated that the parish church of Trim, St. Patrick’s, was in this glebe.[xxxi]
1654-6 Gormanstowne Civil Survey, p. 247.
1655 Gormonstowne Petty’s Map, Navan.
1660c. Gormonstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Gormanstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Gormanstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Gormanstown from Baile Uí Ghormáin meaning O’Gorman’s town. The Gormans were the chieftains of the barony of Slievemargy in Co. Laois but were driven out by the Norman invasion. Gormanston, Stamullen parish, the seat of the Lords Gormanston, is mentioned as Villa Macgorman in a cartulary of Llanthony c.1200. There are two other townlands named Gormanstown in County Meath.[xxxii]
1854 Greatfurze Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan provided the Irish, Aiteann mor, for great furze.[xxxiii]
Kennastown – Kennystown
1559 Ballyconnan Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Canistowne Civil Survey, p. 169.
1660c. Canistowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Ballyconna alias
Ballycourt alias Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1854 Kennastown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Kennastown from Baile Cheannaigh, meaning Kenny’s town. The name, Kenny, may be a personal name or derived from the surname, Kenny, now found mainly in the west of Ireland. The surname, Mac Kenna, is said to have originated in Meath. The place name could originate from something relating to the head, ceann, as in Ceannanus Mór. The Archaeological Inventory recorded the site of earthworks in this townland.[xxxiv]
A townland near Navan in the civil parish of Ardsallagh is also named Kennastown but today this is generally recognised as Cannistown. O’Donovan stated that the Kennastown in Ardsallagh was derived from the Kenna family, Baile Ceana.
1559 Kilmorry Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Kilmurry Civil Survey, p. 172.
1655 Killmury Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.
1660c. Killmurray Books of Survey and Distribution
1802 Killmurry Statistical Survey
1812 Killmurray Larkin’s Map
1854 Kilmurry Griffith’s Valuation
Kilmurray is derived from Cill Mhuire, meaning Mary’s church. Cill is the most productive element in ecclesiastical place-names before the twelfth century. Cill, a borrowing from the Latin cella, is usually anglicised as kil. Up to one in twenty townland names include the element Kil. There are 59 townlands in Meath which commence with kil or kill. Devotion to Mary increased following the Anglo-Norman invasion. Kilmurry is the name of nearly fifty townlands with devotion particularly strong in Leinster. St. Mary’s Augustinian Abbey, Trim was the site of a medieval pilgrimage to the statue of Our Lady of Trim. There are no archaeological remains of a church in this townland. The usual Irish name is Cill Mhuire, Mary’s church; but Joyce suggested that some may have been so named after an ecclesiastical figure, Muireadhach.[xxxv]
1533 Killnycrosse Grant, Butler, p. 121.
1654-5 Kilnecrosse Civil Survey, p. 172.
1660c. Killnecrosse Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Kilnacross Larkin’s Map
1854 Kilnagross Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Kilnagros from Cill na gCros, meaning the church of the crosses.[xxxvi] The Archaeological Survey recorded no remains of a church site in this townland.
1854 Lackanash Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Lackenash from Leacain Ais, with a possible meaning of hill-side of the milk. However leac could be flag (stone), the name could the flag of the milk. It is a small townland near to the town of Trim and there appear to be no early recording of the name. The modern pronunciation adds little to the derivation of its meaning. In 1540-41 there was an area called Asshepark in this vicinity. John Ashe received a pension from the monastery which owned Asshepark. However such a hybrid name does not appear likely.[xxxvii]
Manor South – Manorland (1st , 2nd division)
1854 Manorland Griffith’s Valuation
The manor lands of Trim were the estate of the lord of Trim which originated in medieval times. Manorland 1st division contains the remains of the lord’s home –Trim castle. Manorlands 2nd division has a cropmark of small enclosure, probably a small field. The Manorlands were more extensive than the surviving townlands boundaries portray.[xxxviii]
1386 the Maudelyns Extent[xxxix]
1540-41 Mawdeleyns Monastic possessions, p. 303.
1540-41 Mawdelynsfeld Monastic possessions, p. 307.
1559 Maudelen’s field Patent, Butler, p. 122.
1610 Maudelin’s field Rent, Butler, p. 127.
1654-6 Maudlins Civil Survey, p. 169.
1655 Maudlins Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.
1660c. Maudlins Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Maudelin’s field Indenture, Butler, p. 140.
1854 Maudlin Griffith’s Valuation
The term, Maudlin, is derived from Mary Magdalene. The Trim hospital of the Blessed Mary Magdalene was a leper hospital first mentioned in 1335. O’Donovan stated that the townland is said to have derived its name from Lady Maudlin, daughter of Sir —- but this is not correct. The Maudlin church and graveyard is now located in Friaryland 3rd division. There is also a townland named ‘Maudlin’ in Kells parish and a Maudlin bridge in Duleek.[xl]
1540-41 Monketon Monastic Possessions, p. 269.
1654-6 Moncketowne Civil Survey, p. 172.
1655 Monkstowne Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.
1660c. Monckstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1854 Monktown Griffith’s Valuation
This property was in the possession of the Cistercian abbey of Bective abbey.[xli]
1812 Meenisbouy Larkin’s Map
1854 Moynasboy Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derived Moynasboy from Magh nEasa Bhuidhe, the plain of the yellow waterfall or Mag-nEach buidhe, the yellow plain of the horses. O’Donovan said the name was pronounced ‘Maighneas Buidhe.’ Magh is the most common Irish word for a plain or level tract. The place name element Maigh is distributed throughout the 32 counties and is usually anglicised moy. Buidhe, meaning yellow, is anglicised as boy. A nearby townland, Newtownmoynagh, had an earlier alternative name as Horsenewtown. As there is no significant waterfall in the townland the name is more likely to be derived from the yellow plain of the horses.[xlii]
1544 Newhaggard Grant, Butler, p. 215.
1654-6 Newhaggard Civil Survey, p. 169.
1655 New Hagert Petty’s Map, Moyfenragh.
1660c. Newhaggard Books of Survey and Distribution
1802 Newhaggart Statistical Survey
1812 Newhaggard Larkin’s Map
1854 Newhaggard Griffith’s Valuation
A haggard is a stackyard used for storing un-threshed corn. In this townland in the nineteenth century there was an extensive corn and flour mill on the river. This Newhaggard probably replaced the earlier haggard which was located nearer the town of Trim, which was indicated by one of the street names. The earliest reference to Haggard street in Trim is in 1571 when it is mentioned in a Fiant. The element ‘new’ is linked to the Anglo-Norman settlement and so its use as a place name element is most common in Leinster. There is also a townland named ‘Newhaggard’ in Kilsharvan parish in east Meath.[xliii]
1559 Horsenewtown Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Newtowne Moyneagh Civil Survey, p. 170.
1660c. Newtowne Moyneth Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Horestown Newtown alias
Hanesnewtown alias Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1812 Newtownmeenagh Larkin’s Map
1854 Newtownmoynagh Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Newtownmoynagh from Baile Nua na Muimhneach, meaning the Newtown of the Munstermen. Newtown was one of the simplest and most common place name elements introduced by the Anglo-Normans. There are 19 townlands with the term ‘Newtown’ as their first component in county Meath. O’Donovan provided Muimhneach for a Munsterman. However an alternative derivation could be the Newtown of the plain of the horse, moy n’each.[xliv]
1654-6 Oakestowne Civil Survey, p. 248.
1660c. Oakestowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Oakstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Oakstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan provided Baile na Daróige, town of the oak. The townland may appear in earlier documents as a variant. The place name Derysland or Diersland appears in an indenture of 1667 and the place name Derisland in a rent of 1610. However these names could be derived from the occupation of dyer of cloth.[xlv]
1812 Peterstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Peterstown Griffith’s Valuation
Peter as a name was introduced to England and Ireland by the Normans. The usual Norman version was Piers or Pierce.[xlvi]
1559 Phillemen’s land Patent, Butler, p. 122.
1610 Phelim’s Land Rent, Butler, p. 128.
1654-6 Phillinstowne Civil Survey, p. 248.
1660c. Phillinstowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Phelimynsland Indenture, Butler, p. 140.
1812 Phillinstown Larkin’s Map
1854 Phillinstown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Phillinstown from Baile Philín meaning the town of the Phillin family. Phillin may be derived from Phylan a variant of Phelan in use in Westmeath and north Offaly. However earlier recorded versions of the name suggest that it was Phellim’s town. Phelim or Feidlimid was a popular name in the early period throughout Gaelic Ireland. In the form Feidhlim and Féidhlim it was popular among the O’Reillys and other families during the medieval period.[xlvii]
1654-6 Fellistown Civil Survey, p.249.
1655 Fellixtowne Petty’s Map, Navan.
1660c. Fillistowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Phillestown Larkin’s Map
1854 Phillistown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan stated that locally this townland bore the same local name as the nearby townland as Phillinstown.[xlviii] Early occurrences suggest that it was town or property of Felix.
1812 Rahineacrea Larkin’s Map
1854 Raheenacrehy Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Raheennacrehy from Raithin na Croiche, meaning the little fort of the gallows, a place of execution. A rath consisted of an earthen rampart and was a dwelling place within an enclosure. The Archaeological Survey recorded an enclosure in this townland which was possibly the little fort. Rath or its derivatives appear as the first component in sixty of the townland names of county Meath.[xlix]
1559 Ballycorry alias
Roriestown Patent, Butler, p. 123.
1654-6 Roristowne Civil Survey, p. 171.
1660c. Rorristowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Ballyrory alias
Roriestown alias Indenture, Butler, p. 142.
1802 Roristown Statistical Survey
1812 Roristown Larkin’s Map
1854 Roristown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan provided Baile Ruaidhri for Roristown, meaning Rory’s town. Rory is a derivitave of rua, meaning red, and was a favourite name in medieval Ireland, especially favoured among the O’Connors.[l]
1854 Shanlothe Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Shanlothe from Seanlogh meaning the old reward.[li] The first element seems to be sean meaning old but the origin of the second element is unclear. It is a small townland near to the town of Trim and there appear to be no early recording of the name. The modern pronunciation is as the name is spelled and adds little to the derivation of its meaning.
1471 Staplestown Grant, Butler, p. 94
1559 Steepleton Patent, Butler, p. 122.
1610 Stepleton Rent, Butler, p. 128.
1624 Steepleton Grant, Butler, p. 130.
1654-6 Steepletowne Civil Survey, p. 249.
1655 Steeplestowne Commons Petty’s Map, Navan.
1660c. Steepletowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1667 Staplestown alias
Steepletown alias Indenture, Butler, p. 141.
1812 Steeplestown Larkin’s Map
1854 Steeplestown Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan provided Baile Cloghthighe for Steeplestown, the town of the steeple or round tower belfry. John O’Donovan said that there was a clogteach there while Dean Butler, the local historian of the time, disagreed. The annals record a round tower at Tullyard but when the boundaries of the townland were laid out the tower was in Steeplestown. The tower was burned in 1171 by Tiernan O’Rourke. Barrow lists this round tower as a disappeared tower.[lii]
1542 Stonhall Confiscation, Butler, p. 214.
1540-41 Stonehall Monastic possessions, p. 304.
1542 Stonhall Grant, Butler, p. 213.
1854 Stonehall Griffith’s Valuation
A hall is a large place covered by a roof but there is no record of a significant building here. There is a record of Stonefield in a patent of 1559, a rent of 1610 and an indenture of 1667. There are seven townlands named ‘Stonehall’ in Ireland.[liii]
807 Vadum Truimm Book of Armagh[liv]
929 Ath Trum Four Masters
1128 Ath Truim Annals of Ulster
1196 Athrim Papal Charter[lv]
1231 Atrum Cartularies of Llanthony[lvi]
1240 Trum Register of Hospital of St. John the Baptist[lvii]
1257 Crum (Trum) Act, Butler, p. 21.
1340 Trym Register of Hospital of St. John the Baptist [lviii]
1444 Ath Truim Annals in Misc. Archae.
1447 Athtrym Annals in Misc. Archae.
1458 Trum Gravestone[lix]
1464 Ath Trym Annals in Misc. Archae.
1488 Ath Trim Four Masters
1506 Ath Truim Four Masters
1533 Tryme Grant, Butler, p. 120.
1540-41 Trymme Monastic possessions, p. 292.
1540-41 Trim Monastic possessions, p. 298
1540-41 Trym Monastic possessions, p. 302.
1624 Trym Grant, Butler, p. 130.
1654-6 Tryme Civil Survey, p. 169.
1783 Trim Taylor and Skinner’s Map[lx]
1812 Trim Larkin’s Map
1854 Trim Griffith’s Valuation
Trim is derived from Ath Truim the ford of the elder tree. The other two main towns in Meath – Navan and Kells changed to using the Irish version of their names in the 1920s but Trim did not. The town of Navan converted to an Irish version An Uaimh in 1922 but the change failed to attract support of the locals and the name reverted to Navan in 1970. Kells changed to Ceannanus Mór in the early part of the twentieth century but reverted to Kells in 1993.[lxi]
1854 Townsparks Griffith’s Valuation
This was the property of the town and is located in the centre of the town and includes lands in the vicinity of St. Patrick’s Cathedral on the northside of the town and the site of Franciscan friary on the southside of the town. There are ‘Townparks’ in the parishes of Navan, Athboy and Kells as well as at Trim.[lxii]
Tremblestown also Tremleston/Trimlestown/Trimleston
1533 Trynletistown Grant, Butler, p. 120.
1540-41 Trymletiston Monastic possessions, p. 297.
1654-6 Trimlestowne Civil Survey, p. 247.
1655 Trimlestowne Petty’s Map, Navan.
1660c. Trimblestowne Books of Survey and Distribution
1783 Trimleston Taylor and Skinner’s Map[lxiii]
1802 Trimlestown Statistical Survey
1812 Trimblestown Larkin’s Map
1854 Tremblestown Griffith’s Valuation
In 1461 Robert Barnewall was created Baron Trimlestown by Edward IV. Baile Rinile was the local Irish name for the townland in O’Donovan’s time. The church, tower house and memorial are associated with the Barnewall family.[lxiv]
1171 Telcha Áird Four Masters
1175 Tulca Airdi Annals of Tigernach[lxv]
1177 Tulcha Aird Annals of Tigernach[lxvi]
1540-41 Tyllaughard Monastic possessions, p. 309.
1654-6 Tullaghard Civil Survey, p. 249.
1655 Tullaghard Petty’s Map, Navan.
1660c. Tullahard Books of Survey and Distribution
1812 Tullaghard Larkin’s Map
1854 Tullyard Griffith’s Valuation
O’Donovan derives Tullyard from Tulaigh Ard, meaning high hill and stated that it was the seat of O Coindealbhain. Tullyard was the centre for the kings of Lóegaire Breg. The name element, Tulach, meaning hill, has a widespread distribution throughout the country but by far more common in Ulster. Tulachard makes 16 appearances as Tullyard. There are twelve townlands in Meath where the component Tullach or its derivatives are the first component. It has been suggested that Tullyard was the site of an early church identified in the Book of Leinster as Ciaran Tulche Airdde, Ciaran Aird Heó and Brenaind Aird Eo. From this it would appear that the original name for the place was Ard Eó, the height of the yews. [lxvii]
1812 Whitehall Larkin’s Map
1854 Whitehall Griffith’s Valuation
Whitehall would signify a white building but could be White’s hall as there is a White’s land recorded in a grant of 1624 and an indenture of 1667.[lxviii]
1753 Woodside of Clonfain Corporation Map[lxix]
1854 Woodside Griffith’s Valuation
The woods and forests of Trim manor are mentioned in a deed of 1234 and in a patent of Phillip and Mary 1559.[lxx] Woodside adjoins Oakstown townland.
More than half the townland names reflect the ownership of land e.g. Addenstown, Aghathomas, Ballymulmore, Bellewstown and Dunlever.
Human habitation is reflected in the elements dún, ráth, baile and town in the townland names e.g. Dunlever, Raheenacrehy, Ballymulmore, Roristown. Other habitation related names include Stonehall and Whitehall.
Cultivation and field systems are reflected in the elements agha, ceapach and cluain in names such as Aghatomas, Ballynafeeragh, the Broad, Capranny, Clondavan, Clonee, Cloneens and Fearmore.
Physical features are reflected in the elements cluain, doirin, moy and tulach which occur as Clondavan, Newtownmoynagh, Drinadaly and Tullyard. Man-made features are shown in the elements: ath and bothair as in Trim and Batterstown, Other names which feature physical features include The Broad, Greatfurze and Newhaggard.
The distribution of woodlands in the area is reflected in the townland names of Drinadaly, Oakstown and Woodside and may be associated with Fostersholding and Fosterstown. Bionyms include Capranny, Crowpark, Dogstown, Deringdaly, Fearmore, Great Furze, Oakstown and Woodside.
The ecclesiastical element cill provides two townland names in Kilmurry and Kilnagros. Steeplestown commemorates an early ecclesiastical establishment with a round tower. There are a number of examples of ecclesiastical names from the medieval period such as Black Friary, Friarspark, Maudlinand and Monktown. More modern ecclesiastical references include Dunlever Glebe, Glebe and Glebe of Trim.
Trim parish has nineteen townland names with the element, town, which is an indication of the Anglo-Norman influence. The kingdom of Meath was granted to Hugh de Lacy in 1172 and he fixed on Trim as his centre. There are only two bally place names. O’Connor suggested that the interchangeability of baile and town shows how thoroughly the cultures of the Gael and Norman fused in hybrid areas during the course of the later medieval period.[lxxi] The element town is usually associated with a personal name. On two occasions it is associated with a topographical feature as Batterstown and Steepletown and there are two instances of bionyms – Oakstown and Dogstown.
Of the fifty nine townland names in the parish of Trim thirty nine townlands have Anglo-Norman, English or modern elements and twenty nine townlands have Irish/Gaelic elements. Despite the early conquest and colonisation of the area by the Anglo-Normans approximately half the townland names contain an Irish element. This would be considerably under the 86% of the townland names estimated as being rooted in the Gaelic language antionally.[lxxii] A sign of the success of the colonisation would be the fact that twenty four of the townlands have no Irish element. Cross borrowing such as Aghathomas, an Irish element allied with a Norman name, may belong to the period of the Gaelic Revival in the fourteenth century. New English elements and modern names include Broad, Charter School Land, Crowpark and Glebe.
With regard to the structure and formation of the townland names the most common type is the noun and personal name as in Addanstown or Deringdaly. The next most numerous type is the noun and the noun as in Batterstown or Friarspark. There are incidents of noun and adjective as Newhaggard or Whitehall. Nouns on their own provide names such as Broad or Clonee. Noun, article and noun provide names such as Ballynafeeragh or Kilnagros.
The townland names of Trim parish demonstrate the influence of the Norman invasion on existing Gaelic names and also the persistence of these Gaelic names despite colonisation.
[i] Ordnance Survey Name Books County Meath, p. 1350; Ronan Coghlan, Irish christian names (London, 1979), p. 116; Donnchadh Ó Corráin & Fidelma Maguire, Gaelic personal names (Dublin, 1981), p. 12.
[ii] Name Books, p. 1350; Deirdre Flanagan & Laurence Flanagan, Irish place names (Dublin, 1994), p. 12; Jack Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath (Kells, 1978), pp 3-4; Patrick J. O’Connor, Atlas of Irish place-names (Newcastle West, 2001), p. 17.
[iii] Coghlan, Christian names, p. 116; E.G. Withycombe, The concise dictionary of English christian names (Oxford, 1977), pp 279-80.
[iv] Name Books, p. 1367; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names, p. 130.
[v] O’Connor, Atlas, pp 5, 21; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 6-12; Flanagan & Flanagan, Irish place Names, p. 21.
[vi] Name Books, p. 1353.
[vii] Name Books, p. 1367; Flanagan & Flanagan, Irish place names, p. 32; P.W. Joyce, The origins and history of Irish names of places (Dublin, 1869), i, p. 370; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 14.
[viii] Name Books, p. 1360; Edward MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland (Dublin, 1980), p.16; Mark Anthony Lower, A dictionary of surnames (London, 1860), p. 24; Edward MacLysaght, More Irish families (Dublin, 1982), p. 32; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 15.
[ix] John O’Heyne, The Irish Dominicans of the seventeenth century (Dundalk, 1902), pp 39-41; Ambrose Coleman, The Ancient Dominican Foundations in Ireland (Dundalk, 1902) pp 32-3; Extents of Irish Monastic Possessions 1540-1541, p 309; Michael J. Moore, Archaeological inventory of County Meath (Dublin, 1987), p. 116.
[x] Name Books, p. 1369; Donnchadh Ó Meachair, A short history of County Meath (Navan, c. 1930), p.131; Edward MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland (Dublin, 1980), p. 25; Patrick Wolfe, Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall (Dublin, 1923), p. 248.
[xi] Name Books, p. 1352; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 97; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 228; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 41.
[xii] Name Books, p. 1365; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names. p. 44; Annals of the Four Masters, sub. 844; MacLysaght, More Irish families, pp 49-50; Wolfe, Sloinnte, p. 448; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p.125.
[xiii] Taylor and Skinner, Maps of the roads of Ireland (London, 1783), p. 56.
[xiv] Name Books, p. 1359; Joseph Byrne, Byrne’s dictionary of Irish local history (Cork, 2004), p. 60; Mark Hennessy, Trim Irish historic town atlas No. 14 (Dublin, 2004), p. 13; Kenneth Milne, The Irish charter schools 1730-1830 (Dublin, 1997), p. 348; General alphabetical index to the townlands and towns, parishes and baronies of Ireland (Dublin, 1861), p. 235.
[xv] Name Books, p. 1349; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 233; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 25-7; Wolfe, Sloinnte, p. 509.
[xvi] Name Books, p. 1367, O’Connor, Atlas, p. 53.
[xvii] Name Books, p. 1354; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 237.
[xviii] Reports for the Commissioners on Municipal Corporations in Ireland (1835), pp 269-70; Name Books, p. 1355.
[xix] Fitzsimons, The Plains of Royal Meath, pp 28-9.
[xx] Municipal Corporations, p. 265.
[xxi] Name Books, p. 1353.
[xxii] Name Books, p. 1368; Edward MacLysaght, Irish families (Dublin, 1985), p. 70; Wolfe, Sloinnte p. 493; Moore, Archaeological inventory pp 23; 68; 99.
[xxiii] Name Books, p. 1360.
[xxiv] Name Books, p. 1362.
[xxv] Name Books, p. 1369; Wolfe, Sloinnte, p. 512; MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland, p. 87.
[xxvi] Name Books, p. 1352; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 73; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 39-40; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 280; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names, p. 122; Butler, Trim, p. 178; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 23.
[xxvii] Name Books, p. 1368.
[xxviii] Name Books, p. 1362; Lower, A dictionary of surnames, p.119; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 43; James Mills & M.J. Mc Enery (eds), Calendar of the Gormanston register (Dublin, 1916), p. 156.
[xxix] Name Books, p. 1348.
[xxx] Name Books, p. 1372; Moore, Archaeological Inventory, p. 136; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 53; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 47-8; General alphabetical index, pp 235; 477-81.
[xxxi] Name Books, p. 1356.
[xxxii] Name Books, p. 1350; MacLysaght, More Irish families, p. 95; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 48.
[xxxiii] Name Books, p. 1351.
[xxxiv] Name Books, p. 1361; MacLysaght, Irish families, p. 113; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 111.
[xxxv] Name Books, p. 1360; O’Connor, Atlas, pp 11, 45, 115; Joyce, The origins and history, i, pp 314-5; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 56-9; Mary Lee Nolan, ‘Irish Pilgrimage: The Different Tradition’ in Annals of association of American geographers, 73, no 3 (Sept. 1983) p. 424.
[xxxvi] Name Books, p. 1352.
[xxxvii] Name Books, p. 1356; Extents of Irish monastic possessions 1540-1541, pp 293, 303, 306.
[xxxviii] Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 118; Hennessy, Trim town atlas. map 7, map 8; C.C. Ellison, ‘Dangan, Mornington and the Wellesleys – Notes on the rise and fall of a great Meath estate’ in Ríocht na Midhe, IV (1967), pp 21-5.
[xxxix] Michael Potterton, Medieval Trim history and archaeology (Dublin, 2005), p. 343.
[xl] Potterton, Medieval Trim, p. 342; Name Books, p. 1372; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 135; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 65.
[xli] Extents of Irish monastic possessions 1540-41, p. 269; Anthony Cogan, The diocese of Meath ancient and modern (Dublin, 1862), i, pp 118-20; Calendar of patent and close rolls of chancery in Ireland, Henry VIII-Elizabeth James Morrin (ed.) (1861), i, pp 280, 281.
[xlii] Name Books, p. 1365; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 101; Joyce, The origins and history, i, pp 422, 424, ii, p. 279.
[xliii] Name Books, p. 1359; Hennessy, Trim town atlas, p. 9; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 119; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 72.
[xliv] Name Books, p. 1366; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath. pp 73-4; Joyce, The origins and history, ii, p. 126.
[xlv] Name Books, p. 1350; Butler, Trim, pp 128; 140.
[xlvi] Withycombe, English christian names, p. 243.
[xlvii] Name Books, p. 1350; MacLysaght, The surnames of Ireland, p. 245; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names, p. 95.
[xlviii] Name Books, p. 1349.
[xlix] Name Books, p. 1347; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 105; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, pp 79-83.
[l] Name Books, p. 1361; Coghlan, Christian names, p. 104; Ó Corráin & Maguire, Personal names, p. 158.
[li] Name Books, p. 1363.
[lii] Name Books, p. 1348; Michael Herity, (ed) Ordnance Survey letters Meath 1836 (Dublin, 2001), p. 67-6; Annals of the Four Masters, sub. 1171, Annals of Inisfallen, sub 1171; George Lennox Barrow, The round towers of Ireland a study and gazetteer (Dublin, 1979), p. 170.
[liii] Butler, Trim, pp 122; 128; 140; General alphabetical index, p. 840.
[liv] Ludwig Bieler, (ed.) The Patrician texts in the Book of Armagh (Dublin, 1979), pp 166-71.
[lv] Maurice P. Sheehy, (ed) Pontificia hibernicia. Medieval Papal Chancery documents concerning Ireland 640-1261 i, (Dublin, 1965), p. 84.
[lvi] Eric St. John Brooks, (ed.) The Irish cartularies of Llanthony Prima and Secunda (Dublin, 1953), p. 37.
[lvii] Eric St. John Brooks, (ed.) Register of the hospital of St. John the Baptist (Dublin, 1936), p. 176.
[lviii] Register of the hospital of St. John the Baptist, p. 181.
[lix] Gravestone to Walter Thoumbe in St. Patrick’s Church of Ireland Cathedral, Loman Street, Trim.
[lx] Taylor and Skinner, Maps, p. 56.
[lxi] Name Books, p. 1377; Flanagan & Flanagan, Irish place names pp 156-7; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 517; Herity, Ordnance Survey letters p. 67; Diarmuid Ó Murchadha, ‘Odhbha and Navan’ in Ríocht na Midhe, viii, no 4, (1992-1993), p.112; S.I. No. 156/1993: Local Government (change of name of Urban District) Order, 1993.
[lxii] Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 92.
[lxiii] Taylor and Skinner, Maps, p. 56.
[lxiv] Matthew O’Reilly, ‘The Barnewalls’ in Ríocht na Midhe, i, no 3 (1957), p. 66; Name Books, p. 1351; Moore, Archaeological inventory, p. 147.
[lxv] Annals of Tigernach, sub 1175, p. 291.
[lxvi] Annals of Tigernach, sub 1177, p. 298.
[lxvii] Name Books, p. 1348; Alfred P. Smyth, Celtic Leinster – Towards an historical geography of early Irish civilization A.D. 500-1600. (Dublin, 1982), p. 34; 46-7; Mark Clinton, ‘Settlement Dynamics in Co. Meath: the Kingdom of Lóegaire’ in Peritia 14 (2000), pp 373, 377; O’Connor, Atlas, p. 155; Joyce, The origins and history, i, p. 389; Fitzsimons, The plains of Royal Meath, p. 93; Diarmuid Ó Murchadha and Kevin Murray ‘Place-names’ in Neil Buttimer, Colin Rynne, Helen Guerin (eds) The heritage of Ireland (Cork, 2000) p.153
[lxviii] Butler, Trim, pp. 130; 141.
[lxix] Name Books, p. 1350
[lxx] Gormanston register, p. 156; Butler, Trim, p. 123.
[lxxi] O’Connor, Atlas, p. 6.
[lxxii] O’Connor, Atlas, p. 8.